Previous Next

Plural notations for Translation

As of Zend Framework 1.9, Zend_Translate is able to provide plural support. Professional translation will always have the need to use plurals as they are native in almost all languages.

So what are plurals? Generally spoken plurals are words which take into account numeric meanings. But as you may imaging each language has it's own definition of plurals. English, for example, supports one plural. We have a singular definition, for example "car", which means implicit one car, and we have the plural definition, "cars" which could mean more than one car but also zero cars. Other languages like russian or polish have more plurals and also the rules for plurals are different.

When you want to use plurals with Zend_Translate you must not need to know how the plurals are defined, only the translator must know as he does the translation. The only information you need to have is the language.

There are two way for using plurals... the traditional one, which means that you use a own method, and a modern one, which allows you to do plural translations with the same method as normal translations.

Traditional plural translations

People who worked with gettext in past will be more common with traditional plural translations. There is a own plural() method which can be used for plural translations.

Example #1 Example of traditional plural translations

The plural() method accepts 4 parameters. The first parameter is the singular messageId, the second is the plural messageId and the third is the number or amount.

The number will be used to detect the plural which has to be returned. A optional forth parameter can be used to give a locale which will be used to return the translation.

$translate = new Zend_Translate('gettext', '/path/to/german.mo', 'de');
$translate->plural('Car', 'Cars', $number);

Modern plural translations

As traditional plural translations are restricted to source code using english plurals we added a new way for plural translations. It allows to use the same translate() for standard and for plural translations.

To use plural translations with translate() you need to give an array as messageId instead of an string. This array must have the original plural messageId's, then the amount and at last an optional locale when your given messageId's are not in english notation.

Example #2 Example of modern plural translations

When we want to translate the same plural definitions like in the previous our example would have to be defined like below.

$translate = new Zend_Translate('gettext', '/path/to/german.mo', 'de');
$translate->translate(array('Car', 'Cars', $number));

Using modern plural translations it is also possible to use any language as source for messageId's.

Example #3 Example of modern plural translations using a different source language

Let's expect we want to use russian and let's also expect that the given messageId's are russian and not english.

$translate = new Zend_Translate('gettext', '/path/to/german.mo', 'de');
$translate->translate(array('Car',
                            'Cars first plural',
                            'Cars second plural',
                            $number,
                            'ru'));

As you can see you can give more than just the one english plural. But you must give the source language in this case so Zend_Translate knows which plural rules it has to apply.

When you omit the plural language then english will be used per default and any additional plural definition will be ignored.

Plural source files

Not all source formats support plural forms. Look into this list for details:

Plural support
Adapter Plurals supported
Array yes
Csv yes
Gettext yes
Ini no
Qt no
Tbx no
Tmx no
Xliff no
XmlTm no

Below you can find examples of plural defined source files.

Array source with plural definitions

An array with plural definitions has to look like the following example.

array(
    'plural_0' => array(
        'plural_0 (ru)',
        'plural_1 (ru)',
        'plural_2 (ru)',
        'plural_3 (ru)'
    ),
    'plural_1' => ''
);

In the above example plural_0 and plural_1 are the plural definitions from the source code. And the array at plural_0 has all translated plural forms available. Take a look at the following example with real content and translation from english source to german.

array(
    'Car' => array(
        'Auto',
        'Autos'
    ),
    'Cars' => ''
);

When your translated language supports more plural forms then simply add them to the array below the first plural form. When your source language suppors more plural forms, than simply add a new empty translation.

Csv source with plural definitions

A csv file with plural definitions has to look like the following example.

"plural_0";"plural_0 (ru)";"plural_1 (ru)";"plural_2 (ru)";"plural_3 (ru)"
"plural_1";

All translated plural forms have to be added after the first plural of the source language. And all further plural forms of the source language have to be added below but without translation. Note that you must add a delimiter to empty source plurals.

Gettext source with plural definitions

Gettext sources support plural forms out of the box. There is no need for adoption as the *.mo file will contain all necessary data.

Note:

Note that gettext does not support the usage of source languages which are not using english plural forms. When you plan to use a source language which supports other plural forms like russian for example, then you can not use gettext sources.

Previous Next
Introduction to Zend Framework
Présentation
Installation
Zend_Acl
Introduction
Affiner les Contrôles d'Accès
Utilisation avancée
Zend_Amf
Introduction
Zend_Amf_Server
Zend_Application
Introduction
Zend_Application Quick Start
Théorie générale
Exemples
Fonctionnalités principales
Plugins de ressources disponibles
Zend_Auth
Introduction
Authentification avec une table de base de données
Authentification "Digest"
Adaptateur d'authentification HTTP
LDAP Authentication
Authentification OpenID
Zend_Cache
Introduction
Aspect théorique
Les frontends Zend_Cache
Les backends Zend_Cache
Zend_Captcha
Introduction
Opération Captcha
Adaptateurs CAPTCHA
Zend_CodeGenerator
Introduction
Exemples Zend_CodeGenerator
Zend_CodeGenerator Réference
Zend_Config
Introduction
Aspect théorique
Zend_Config_Ini
Zend_Config_Xml
Zend_Config_Writer
Zend_Config_Writer
Zend_Console_Getopt
Introduction
Déclarer les règles Getopt
Extraire les options et les arguments
Configurer Zend_Console_Getopt
Zend_Controller
Zend_Controller - Démarrage rapide
Fondations de Zend_Controller
Le contrôleur frontal (Front Controller)
L'objet Requête
Routeur Standard
Le distributeur
Contrôleurs d'action
Aides d'action (Helper)
Objet de réponse
Plugins
Utilisation de conventions de dossiers modulaires
Exceptions avec MVC
Migrer depuis des versions précédentes
Zend_Currency
Introduction à Zend_Currency
How to Work with Currencies
Migrer depuis des versions antérieures
Zend_Date
Introduction
Aspect théorique
Méthodes de base
Zend_Date API Overview
Créer des dates
Constants for General Date Functions
Exemples concrets
Zend_Db
Zend_Db_Adapter
Zend_Db_Statement
Zend_Db_Profiler
Zend_Db_Select
Zend_Db_Table
Zend_Db_Table_Row
Zend_Db_Table_Rowset
Relations Zend_Db_Table
Zend_Db_Table_Definition
Zend_Debug
Afficher des informations
Zend_Dojo
Introduction
Zend_Dojo_Data: dojo.data Envelopes
Les aides de vues Dojo
Les éléments de formulaire et les décorateurs Dojo
Zend_Dojo build layer support
Zend_Dom
Introduction
Zend_Dom_Query
Zend_Exception
Utiliser les exceptions
Zend_Feed
Introduction
Importer des flux
Obtenir des flux à partir de pages Web
Consommer un flux RSS
Consommer un flux Atom
Consommer une entrée Atom particulière
Modifier la structure du flux ou des entrées
Classes personnalisées pour les flux et entrées
Zend_Feed_Reader
Zend_File
Zend_File_Transfer
Validateurs pour Zend_File_Transfer
Filtres pour Zend_File_Transfer
Migrer à partir des versions précédentes
Zend_Filter
Introduction
Classes de filtre standards
Chaînes de filtrage
Écriture de filtres
Zend_Filter_Input
Zend_Filter_Inflector
Migrating from Previous Versions
Zend_Form
Zend_Form
Zend_Form démarrage rapide
Creating Form Elements Using Zend_Form_Element
Creating Forms Using Zend_Form
Créer un visuel personnalisé en utilisant Zend_Form_Decorator
Standard Form Elements Shipped With Zend Framework
Décorateurs standards fournis avec Zend Framework
Internationaliser un formulaire Zend_Form
Advanced Zend_Form Usage
Zend_Gdata
Introduction
Authentification par procédé AuthSub
Using the Book Search Data API
Authentification avec ClientLogin
Using Google Calendar
Using Google Documents List Data API
Using Google Health
Using Google Spreadsheets
Using Google Apps Provisioning
Using Google Base
Utilisation des albums Web Picasa
Using the YouTube Data API
Attraper les exceptions Gdata
Zend_Http
Introduction
Zend_Http_Client - Utilisation avancée
Zend_Http_Client - Adaptateurs de connexion
Migrer depuis les versions précédentes
Zend_Http_Cookie and Zend_Http_CookieJar
Zend_Http_Response
Zend_InfoCard
Introduction
Zend_Json
Introduction
Utilisation de base
Utilisation avancée de Zend_Json
XML to JSON conversion
Zend_Json_Server - JSON-RPC server
Zend_Layout
Introduction
Zend_Layout - Démarrage rapide
Zend_Layout options de configuration
Zend_Layout, utilisation avancée
Zend_Ldap
Introduction
API overview
Usage Scenarios
Tools
Object oriented access to the LDAP tree using Zend_Ldap_Node
Getting information from the LDAP server
Serializing LDAP data to and from LDIF
Zend_Loader
Charger les fichiers et les classes dynamiquement
L'autoloader
Autoloaders de ressources
Chargeur de Plugins
Zend_Locale
Introduction
Using Zend_Locale
Normalization and Localization
Working with Dates and Times
Supported locales
Migrer à partir des versions précédentes
Zend_Log
Présentation
Rédacteurs (Writers)
Formateurs (mise en forme)
Filtres
Zend_Mail
Introduction
Envoyer des émail en utilisant SMTP
Envoyer plusieurs émail par connexion SMTP
Utiliser différents transports
Émail HTML
Fichiers joints
Ajouter des destinataires
Contrôler les limites MIME
En-têtes additionnels
Jeux de caractères
Encodage
Authentification SMTP
Sécuriser les transports SMTP
Lire des émail
Zend_Measure
Introduction
Création d'une mesure
Récupérer des mesures
Manipuler des mesures
Types de mesures
Zend_Memory
Présentation
Manager de mémoire
Objet mémoire
Zend_Mime
Zend_Mime
Zend_Mime_Message
Zend_Mime_Part
Zend_Navigation
Introduction
Pages
Containers
Migrating from Previous Versions
Zend_OpenId
Introduction
Zend_OpenId_Consumer Basics
Zend_OpenId_Provider
Zend_Paginator
Introduction
Utilisation
Configuration
Utilisation avancée
Zend_Pdf
Introduction
Créer et charger des documents PDF
Sauvegarder les changement dans un document PDF
Les pages d'un document
Dessiner
Interactive Features
Informations du document et métadonnées
Exemple d'utilisation du module Zend_Pdf
Zend_ProgressBar
Zend_ProgressBar
Zend_Queue
Introduction
Example usage
Framework
Adapters
Customizing Zend_Queue
Stomp
Zend_Reflection
Introduction
Zend_Reflection Exemples
Réference de Zend_Reflection
Zend_Registry
Utiliser le registre
Zend_Rest
Introduction
Zend_Rest_Client
Zend_Rest_Server
Zend_Search_Lucene
Vue d'ensemble
Créer des index
Searching an Index
Query Language
Query Construction API
Jeu de caractères
Extensibility
Agir avec Lucene Java
Avancé
Bonnes pratiques
Zend_Server
Introduction
Zend_Server_Reflection
Zend_Service
Introduction
Zend_Service_Akismet
Zend_Service_Amazon
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Instances
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Windows Instances
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Reserved Instances
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: CloudWatch Monitoring
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Amazon Machine Images (AMI)
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Elastic Block Stroage (EBS)
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Elastic IP Addresses
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Keypairs
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Regions and Availability Zones
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Security Groups
Zend_Service_Amazon_S3
Zend_Service_Amazon_Sqs
Zend_Service_Audioscrobbler
Zend_Service_Delicious
Zend_Service_Flickr
Zend_Service_Nirvanix
Zend_Service_ReCaptcha
Zend_Service_Simpy
Introduction
Zend_Service_StrikeIron
Zend_Service_StrikeIron: Bundled Services
Zend_Service_StrikeIron: Advanced Uses
Zend_Service_Technorati
Zend_Service_Twitter
Zend_Service_Yahoo
Zend_Session
Introduction
Usage basique
Utilisation avancée
Gestion générale de la session
Zend_Session_SaveHandler_DbTable
Zend_Soap
Zend_Soap_Server
Zend_Soap_Client
WSDL
Auto découverte
Zend_Tag
Introduction
Zend_Tag_Cloud
Zend_Test
Introduction
Zend_Test_PHPUnit
Zend_Test_PHPUnit_Db
Zend_Text
Zend_Text_Figlet
Zend_Text_Table
Zend_TimeSync
Introduction
Utiliser Zend_TimeSync
Zend_Tool_Framework
Introduction
Using the CLI Tool
Architecture
Creating Providers to use with Zend_Tool_Framework
Shipped System Providers
Extending and Configuring Zend_Tool_Framework
Zend_Tool_Project
Introduction
Create A Project
Zend Tool Project Providers
Zend_Translate
Introduction
Adaptateurs pour Zend_Translate
Utiliser les adaptateurs de traduction
Creating source files
Additional features for translation
Plural notations for Translation
Migrer à partir des versions précédentes
Zend_Uri
Zend_Uri
Zend_Validate
Introduction
Classes de validation standard
Chaînes de validation
Écrire des validateurs
Validation Messages
Zend_Version
Lire la version de Zend Framework
Zend_View
Introduction
Scripts de contrôleur
Scripts de vue
Aides de vue
Zend_View_Abstract
Migration depuis les versions précédentes
Zend_Wildfire
Zend_Wildfire
Zend_XmlRpc
Introduction
Zend_XmlRpc_Client
Zend_XmlRpc_Server
Configuration système requise par Zend Framework
Introduction
Convention de codage PHP de Zend Framework
Vue d'ensemble
Formatage des fichiers PHP
Conventions de nommage
Style de codage
Zend Framework Documentation Standard
Overview
Documentation File Formatting
Recommendations
Recommended Project Structure for Zend Framework MVC Applications
Overview
Recommended Project Directory Structure
Module Structure
Rewrite Configuration Guide
Zend Framework Performance Guide
Introduction
Chargement des classes
Zend_Db Performance
Internationalisation (i18n) and Localisation (l10n)
View Rendering
Informations de copyright