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Zend_Application Quick Start

There are two paths to getting started with Zend_Application, and they depend on how you start your project. In each case, you always start with creating a Bootstrap class, and a related configuration file.

If you plan on using Zend_Tool to create your project, continue reading below. If you will be adding Zend_Application to an existing project, you'll want to skip ahead.

Using Zend_Tool

The quickest way to start using Zend_Application is to use Zend_Tool to generate your project. This will also create your Bootstrap class and file.

To create a project, execute the zf command (on *nix systems):

% zf create project newproject

Or the Windows zf.bat command:

C:> zf.bat create project newproject

Both will create a project structure that looks like the following:

newproject
|-- application
|   |-- Bootstrap.php
|   |-- configs
|   |   `-- application.ini
|   |-- controllers
|   |   |-- ErrorController.php
|   |   `-- IndexController.php
|   |-- models
|   `-- views
|       |-- helpers
|       `-- scripts
|           |-- error
|           |   `-- error.phtml
|           `-- index
|               `-- index.phtml
|-- library
|-- public
|   `-- index.php
`-- tests
    |-- application
    |   `-- bootstrap.php
    |-- library
    |   `-- bootstrap.php
    `-- phpunit.xml

In the above diagram, your bootstrap is in newproject/application/Bootstrap.php, and looks like the following at first:

class Bootstrap extends Zend_Application_Bootstrap_Bootstrap
{
}

You'll also note that a configuration file, newproject/application/configs/application.ini, is created. It has the following contents:

[production]
phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 0
phpSettings.display_errors = 0
includePaths.library = APPLICATION_PATH "/../library"
bootstrap.path = APPLICATION_PATH "/Bootstrap.php"
bootstrap.class = "Bootstrap"
resources.frontController.controllerDirectory = APPLICATION_PATH "/controllers"

[staging : production]

[testing : production]
phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 1
phpSettings.display_errors = 1

[development : production]
phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 1
phpSettings.display_errors = 1

All settings in this configuration file are for use with Zend_Application and your bootstrap.

Another file of interest is the newproject/public/index.php file, which invokes Zend_Application and dispatches it.

// Define path to application directory
defined('APPLICATION_PATH')
    || define('APPLICATION_PATH',
              realpath(dirname(__FILE__) . '/../application'));

// Define application environment
defined('APPLICATION_ENV')
    || define('APPLICATION_ENV',
              (getenv('APPLICATION_ENV') ? getenv('APPLICATION_ENV')
                                         : 'production'));

/** Zend_Application */
require_once 'Zend/Application.php';

// Create application, bootstrap, and run
$application = new Zend_Application(
    APPLICATION_ENV,
    APPLICATION_PATH . '/configs/application.ini'
);
$application->bootstrap()
            ->run();

To continue the quick start, please skip to the Resources section.

Adding Zend_Application to your application

The basics of Zend_Application are fairly simple:

  • Create an application/Bootstrap.php file, with the class Bootstrap.

  • Create an application/configs/application.ini configuration file with the base configuration necessary for Zend_Application.

  • Modify your public/index.php to utilize Zend_Application.

First, create your Bootstrap class. Create a file, application/Bootstrap.php, with the following contents:

class Bootstrap extends Zend_Application_Bootstrap_Bootstrap
{
}

Now, create your configuration. For this tutorial, we will use an INI style configuration; you may, of course, use an XML or PHP configuration file as well. Create the file application/configs/application.ini, and provide the following contents:

[production]
phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 0
phpSettings.display_errors = 0
includePaths.library = APPLICATION_PATH "/../library"
bootstrap.path = APPLICATION_PATH "/Bootstrap.php"
bootstrap.class = "Bootstrap"
resources.frontController.controllerDirectory = APPLICATION_PATH "/controllers"

[staging : production]

[testing : production]
phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 1
phpSettings.display_errors = 1

[development : production]
phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 1
phpSettings.display_errors = 1

Now, let's modify your gateway script, public/index.php. If the file does not exist, create it; otherwise, replace it with the following contents:

// Define path to application directory
defined('APPLICATION_PATH')
    || define('APPLICATION_PATH',
              realpath(dirname(__FILE__) . '/../application'));

// Define application environment
defined('APPLICATION_ENV')
    || define('APPLICATION_ENV',
              (getenv('APPLICATION_ENV') ? getenv('APPLICATION_ENV')
                                         : 'production'));

// Typically, you will also want to add your library/ directory
// to the include_path, particularly if it contains your ZF install
set_include_path(implode(PATH_SEPARATOR, array(
    dirname(dirname(__FILE__)) . '/library',
    get_include_path(),
)));

/** Zend_Application */
require_once 'Zend/Application.php';

// Create application, bootstrap, and run
$application = new Zend_Application(
    APPLICATION_ENV,
    APPLICATION_PATH . '/configs/application.ini'
);
$application->bootstrap()
            ->run();

You may note that the application environment constant value looks for an environment variable "APPLICATION_ENV". We recommend setting this in your web server environment. In Apache, you can set this either in your vhost definition, or in your .htaccess file. We recommend the following contents for your public/.htacces file:

SetEnv APPLICATION_ENV development

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -s [OR]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -l [OR]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -d
RewriteRule ^.*$ - [NC,L]
RewriteRule ^.*$ index.php [NC,L]

Note: Learn about mod_rewrite

The above rewrite rules allow access to any file under your virtual host's document root. If there are files you do not want exposed in this way, you may want to be more restrictive in your rules. Go to the Apache website to » learn more about mod_rewrite.

At this point, you're all set to start taking advantage of Zend_Application.

Adding and creating resources

If you followed the directions above, then your bootstrap class will be utilizing a front controller, and when it is run, it will dispatch the front controller. However, in all liklihood, you'll need a little more configuration than this.

In this section, we'll look at adding two resources to your application. First, we'll setup your layouts, and then we'll customize your view object.

One of the standard resources provided with Zend_Application is the "layout" resource. This resource expects you to define configuration values which it will then use to configure your Zend_Layout instance.

To use it, all we need to do is update the configuration file.

[production]
phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 0
phpSettings.display_errors = 0
bootstrap.path = APPLICATION_PATH "/Bootstrap.php"
bootstrap.class = "Bootstrap"
resources.frontController.controllerDirectory = APPLICATION_PATH "/controllers"
; ADD THE FOLLOWING LINES
resources.layout.layout = "layout"
resources.layout.layoutPath = APPLICATION_PATH "/layouts/scripts"

[staging : production]

[testing : production]
phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 1
phpSettings.display_errors = 1

[development : production]
phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 1
phpSettings.display_errors = 1

If you haven't already, create the directory application/layouts/scripts/, and the file layout.phtml within that directory. A good starting layout is as follows (and ties in with the view resource covered next):

doctype() ?>


    headTitle() ?>
    headLink() ?>
    headStyle() ?>
    headScript() ?>


    layout()->content ?>

At this point, you will now have a working layout.

Now, we'll add a custom view resource. When initializing the view, we'll want to set the HTML DocType and a default value for the title to use in the HTML head. This can be accomplished by editing your Bootstrap class to add a method:

class Bootstrap extends Zend_Application_Bootstrap_Bootstrap
{
    protected function _initView()
    {
        // Initialize view
        $view = new Zend_View();
        $view->doctype('XHTML1_STRICT');
        $view->headTitle('My First Zend Framework Application');

        // Add it to the ViewRenderer
        $viewRenderer = Zend_Controller_Action_HelperBroker::getStaticHelper(
            'ViewRenderer'
        );
        $viewRenderer->setView($view);

        // Return it, so that it can be stored by the bootstrap
        return $view;
    }
}

This method will be automatically executed when you bootstrap the application, and will ensure your view is intialized according to your application needs.

Next steps with Zend_Application

The above should get you started with Zend_Application and creating your application bootstrap. From here, you should start creating resource methods, or, for maximum re-usability, resource plugin classes. Continue reading to learn more!

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Introduction to Zend Framework
Overview
Installation
Zend_Acl
Introduction
Refining Access Controls
Advanced Usage
Zend_Amf
Introduction
Zend_Amf_Server
Zend_Application
Introduction
Zend_Application Quick Start
Theory of Operation
Examples
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Introduction
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Introduction
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Zend_Controller Quick Start
Zend_Controller Basics
The Front Controller
The Request Object
The Standard Router
The Dispatcher
Action Controllers
Action Helpers
The Response Object
Plugins
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Migrating from Previous Versions
Zend_Currency
Introduction to Zend_Currency
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Introduction
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Basic Methods
Zend_Date API Overview
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Working Examples
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Introduction
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Introduction
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Using Exceptions
Zend_Feed
Introduction
Importing Feeds
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Consuming an RSS Feed
Consuming an Atom Feed
Consuming a Single Atom Entry
Modifying Feed and Entry structures
Custom Feed and Entry Classes
Zend_File
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Validators for Zend_File_Transfer
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Migrating from previous versions
Zend_Filter
Introduction
Standard Filter Classes
Filter Chains
Writing Filters
Zend_Filter_Input
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Zend_Form
Zend_Form
Zend_Form Quick Start
Creating Form Elements Using Zend_Form_Element
Creating Forms Using Zend_Form
Creating Custom Form Markup Using Zend_Form_Decorator
Standard Form Elements Shipped With Zend Framework
Standard Form Decorators Shipped With Zend Framework
Internationalization of Zend_Form
Advanced Zend_Form Usage
Zend_Gdata
Introduction
Authenticating with AuthSub
Using the Book Search Data API
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Using Google Calendar
Using Google Documents List Data API
Using Google Health
Using Google Spreadsheets
Using Google Apps Provisioning
Using Google Base
Using Picasa Web Albums
Using the YouTube Data API
Catching Gdata Exceptions
Zend_Http
Introduction
Zend_Http_Client - Advanced Usage
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Zend_Http_Cookie and Zend_Http_CookieJar
Zend_Http_Response
Zend_InfoCard
Introduction
Zend_Json
Introduction
Basic Usage
Advanced Usage of Zend_Json
XML to JSON conversion
Zend_Json_Server - JSON-RPC server
Zend_Layout
Introduction
Zend_Layout Quick Start
Zend_Layout Configuration Options
Zend_Layout Advanced Usage
Zend_Ldap
Introduction
Zend_Loader
Loading Files and Classes Dynamically
The Autoloader
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Introduction
Using Zend_Locale
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Working with Dates and Times
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Zend_Log
Overview
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Additional Headers
Character Sets
Encoding
SMTP Authentication
Securing SMTP Transport
Reading Mail Messages
Zend_Measure
Introduction
Creation of Measurements
Outputting measurements
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Zend_Memory
Overview
Memory Manager
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Zend_Mime
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Zend_Navigation
Introduction
Pages
Containers
Zend_OpenId
Introduction
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Zend_Paginator
Introduction
Usage
Configuration
Advanced usage
Zend_Pdf
Introduction
Creating and Loading PDF Documents
Save Changes to PDF Documents
Working with Pages
Drawing
Document Info and Metadata.
Zend_Pdf module usage example
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Zend_ProgressBar
Zend_Reflection
Introduction
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Zend_Reflection Reference
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Using the Registry
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Introduction
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Overview
Building Indexes
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Query Construction API
Character Set
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Introduction
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Introduction
Zend_Service_Akismet
Zend_Service_Amazon
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Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Instances
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Windows Instances
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Reserved Instances
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: CloudWatch Monitoring
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