Previous Next

Query Language

Java Lucene and Zend_Search_Lucene provide quite powerful query languages.

These languages are mostly the same with some minor differences, which are mentioned below.

Full Java Lucene query language syntax documentation can be found » here.

Terms

A query is broken up into terms and operators. There are three types of terms: Single Terms, Phrases, and Subqueries.

A Single Term is a single word such as "test" or "hello".

A Phrase is a group of words surrounded by double quotes such as "hello dolly".

A Subquery is a query surrounded by parentheses such as "(hello dolly)".

Multiple terms can be combined together with boolean operators to form complex queries (see below).

Fields

Lucene supports fields of data. When performing a search you can either specify a field, or use the default field. The field names depend on indexed data and default field is defined by current settings.

The first and most significant difference from Java Lucene is that terms are searched through all fields by default.

There are two static methods in the Zend_Search_Lucene class which allow the developer to configure these settings:




        

The null value indicated that the search is performed across all fields. It's the default setting.

You can search specific fields by typing the field name followed by a colon ":" followed by the term you are looking for.

As an example, let's assume a Lucene index contains two fields- title and text- with text as the default field. If you want to find the document entitled "The Right Way" which contains the text "don't go this way", you can enter:

title:"The Right Way" AND text:go

or

title:"Do it right" AND go

Because "text" is the default field, the field indicator is not required.

Note: The field is only valid for the term, phrase or subquery that it directly precedes, so the query

title:Do it right
Will only find "Do" in the title field. It will find "it" and "right" in the default field (if the default field is set) or in all indexed fields (if the default field is set to null).

Wildcards

Lucene supports single and multiple character wildcard searches within single terms (but not within phrase queries).

To perform a single character wildcard search use the "?" symbol.

To perform a multiple character wildcard search use the "*" symbol.

The single character wildcard search looks for string that match the term with the "?" replaced by any single character. For example, to search for "text" or "test" you can use the search:

te?t

Multiple character wildcard searches look for 0 or more characters when matching strings against terms. For example, to search for test, tests or tester, you can use the search:

test*

You can use "?", "*" or both at any place of the term:

*wr?t*
It searches for "write", "wrote", "written", "rewrite", "rewrote" and so on.

Term Modifiers

Lucene supports modifying query terms to provide a wide range of searching options.

"~" modifier can be used to specify proximity search for phrases or fuzzy search for individual terms.

Range Searches[1]

Range queries allow the developer or user to match documents whose field(s) values are between the lower and upper bound specified by the range query. Range Queries can be inclusive or exclusive of the upper and lower bounds. Sorting is performed lexicographically.

mod_date:[20020101 TO 20030101]
This will find documents whose mod_date fields have values between 20020101 and 20030101, inclusive. Note that Range Queries are not reserved for date fields. You could also use range queries with non-date fields:
title:{Aida TO Carmen}
This will find all documents whose titles would be sorted between Aida and Carmen, but not including Aida and Carmen.

Inclusive range queries are denoted by square brackets. Exclusive range queries are denoted by curly brackets.

If field is not specified then Zend_Search_Lucene searches for specified interval through all fields by default.

{Aida TO Carmen}

Fuzzy Searches[2]

Zend_Search_Lucene as well as Java Lucene supports fuzzy searches based on the Levenshtein Distance, or Edit Distance algorithm. To do a fuzzy search use the tilde, "~", symbol at the end of a Single word Term. For example to search for a term similar in spelling to "roam" use the fuzzy search:

roam~
This search will find terms like foam and roams. Additional (optional) parameter can specify the required similarity. The value is between 0 and 1, with a value closer to 1 only terms with a higher similarity will be matched. For example:
roam~0.8
The default that is used if the parameter is not given is 0.5.

Boosting a Term

Java Lucene and Zend_Search_Lucene provide the relevance level of matching documents based on the terms found. To boost the relevance of a term use the caret, "^", symbol with a boost factor (a number) at the end of the term you are searching. The higher the boost factor, the more relevant the term will be.

Boosting allows you to control the relevance of a document by boosting individual terms. For example, if you are searching for

PHP framework
and you want the term "PHP" to be more relevant boost it using the ^ symbol along with the boost factor next to the term. You would type:
PHP^4 framework
This will make documents with the term PHP appear more relevant. You can also boost phrase terms and subqueries as in the example:
"PHP framework"^4 "Zend Framework"
By default, the boost factor is 1. Although the boost factor must be positive, it may be less than 1 (e.g. 0.2).

Boolean Operators

Boolean operators allow terms to be combined through logic operators. Lucene supports AND, "+", OR, NOT and "-" as Boolean operators. Java Lucene requires boolean operators to be ALL CAPS. Zend_Search_Lucene does not.

AND, OR, and NOT operators and "+", "-" defines two different styles to construct boolean queries. Unlike Java Lucene, Zend_Search_Lucene doesn't allow these two styles to be mixed.

If the AND/OR/NOT style is used, then an AND or OR operator must be present between all query terms. Each term may also be preceded by NOT operator. The AND operator has higher precedence than the OR operator. This differs from Java Lucene behavior.

AND

The AND operator means that all terms in the "AND group" must match some part of the searched field(s).

To search for documents that contain "PHP framework" and "Zend Framework" use the query:

"PHP framework" AND "Zend Framework"

OR

The OR operator divides the query into several optional terms.

To search for documents that contain "PHP framework" or "Zend Framework" use the query:

"PHP framework" OR "Zend Framework"

NOT

The NOT operator excludes documents that contain the term after NOT. But an "AND group" which contains only terms with the NOT operator gives an empty result set instead of a full set of indexed documents.

To search for documents that contain "PHP framework" but not "Zend Framework" use the query:

"PHP framework" AND NOT "Zend Framework"

&&, ||, and ! operators

&&, ||, and ! may be used instead of AND, OR, and NOT notation.

+

The "+" or required operator stipulates that the term after the "+" symbol must match the document.

To search for documents that must contain "Zend" and may contain "Framework" use the query:

+Zend Framework

-

The "-" or prohibit operator excludes documents that match the term after the "-" symbol.

To search for documents that contain "PHP framework" but not "Zend Framework" use the query:

"PHP framework" -"Zend Framework"

No Operator

If no operator is used, then the search behavior is defined by the "default boolean operator".

This is set to OR by default.

That implies each term is optional by default. It may or may not be present within document, but documents with this term will recieve a higher score.

To search for documents that requires "PHP framework" and may contain "Zend Framework" use the query:

+"PHP framework" "Zend Framework"

The default boolean operator may be set or retrieved with the Zend_Search_Lucene_Search_QueryParser::setDefaultOperator($operator) and Zend_Search_Lucene_Search_QueryParser::getDefaultOperator() methods, respectively.

These methods operate with the Zend_Search_Lucene_Search_QueryParser::B_AND and Zend_Search_Lucene_Search_QueryParser::B_OR constants.

Grouping

Java Lucene and Zend_Search_Lucene support using parentheses to group clauses to form sub queries. This can be useful if you want to control the precedence of boolean logic operators for a query or mix different boolean query styles:

+(framework OR library) +php
Zend_Search_Lucene supports subqueries nested to any level.

Field Grouping

Lucene also supports using parentheses to group multiple clauses to a single field.

To search for a title that contains both the word "return" and the phrase "pink panther" use the query:

title:(+return +"pink panther")

Escaping Special Characters

Lucene supports escaping special characters that are used in query syntax. The current list of special characters is:

+ - && || ! ( ) { } [ ] ^ " ~ * ? : \

+ and - inside single terms are automatically treated as common characters.

For other instances of these characters use the \ before each special character you'd like to escape. For example to search for (1+1):2 use the query:

\(1\+1\)\:2

[1]Range queries support is available with SVN and latest snapshot versions and doesn't included into current release.
[2]Fuzzy queries support is available with SVN and latest snapshot versions and doesn't included into current release.
Previous Next
Introduction to Zend Framework
Overview
Installation
Zend_Acl
Introduction
Refining Access Controls
Advanced Use
Zend_Auth
Introduction
Database Table Authentication
Digest Authentication
HTTP Authentication Adapter
LDAP Authentication
Open ID Authentication
Zend_Cache
Introduction
The theory of caching
Zend_Cache frontends
Zend_Cache backends
Zend_Captcha
Introduction
Captcha Operation
Captcha Adapters
Zend_Config
Introduction
Theory of Operation
Zend_Config_Ini
Zend_Config_Xml
Zend_Console_Getopt
Introduction to Getopt
Declaring Getopt Rules
Fetching Options and Arguments
Configuring Zend_Console_Getopt
Zend_Controller
Zend_Controller Quick Start
Zend_Controller Basics
The Front Controller
The Request Object
The Standard Router: Zend_Controller_Router_Rewrite
The Dispatcher
Action Controllers
Action Helpers
The Response Object
Plugins
Using a Conventional Modular Directory Structure
MVC Exceptions
Migrating from Previous Versions
Zend_Currency
Introduction to Zend_Currency
How to work with currencies
Migrating from Previous Versions
Zend_Date
Introduction
Theory of Operation
Basic Methods
Zend_Date API Overview
Creation of dates
Constants for General Date Functions
Working examples
Zend_Db
Zend_Db_Adapter
Zend_Db_Statement
Zend_Db_Profiler
Zend_Db_Select
Zend_Db_Table
Zend_Db_Table_Row
Zend_Db_Table_Rowset
Zend_Db_Table Relationships
Zend_Debug
Dumping Variables
Zend_Dojo
Introduction
Zend_Dojo_Data: dojo.data Envelopes
Dojo View Helpers
Dojo Form Elements and Decorators
Zend_Dom
Introduction
Zend_Dom_Query
Zend_Exception
Using Exceptions
Zend_Feed
Introduction
Importing Feeds
Retrieving Feeds from Web Pages
Consuming an RSS Feed
Consuming an Atom Feed
Consuming a Single Atom Entry
Modifying Feed and Entry structures
Custom Feed and Entry Classes
Zend_File
Zend_File_Transfer
Validators for Zend_File_Transfer
Zend_Filter
Introduction
Standard Filter Classes
Filter Chains
Writing Filters
Zend_Filter_Input
Zend_Filter_Inflector
Zend_Form
Zend_Form
Zend_Form Quick Start
Creating Form Elements Using Zend_Form_Element
Creating Forms Using Zend_Form
Creating Custom Form Markup Using Zend_Form_Decorator
Standard Form Elements Shipped With Zend Framework
Standard Form Decorators Shipped With Zend Framework
Internationalization of Zend_Form
Advanced Zend_Form Usage
Zend_Gdata
Introduction to Gdata
Authenticating with AuthSub
Authenticating with ClientLogin
Using Google Calendar
Using Google Documents List Data API
Using Google Spreadsheets
Using Google Apps Provisioning
Using Google Base
Using the YouTube Data API
Using Picasa Web Albums
Catching Gdata Exceptions
Zend_Http
Zend_Http_Client - Introduction
Zend_Http_Client - Advanced Usage
Zend_Http_Client - Connection Adapters
Zend_Http_Cookie and Zend_Http_CookieJar
Zend_Http_Response
Zend_InfoCard
Introduction
Zend_Json
Introduction
Basic Usage
JSON Objects
XML to JSON conversion
Zend_Json_Server - JSON-RPC server
Zend_Layout
Introduction
Zend_Layout Quick Start
Zend_Layout Configuration Options
Zend_Layout Advanced Usage
Zend_Ldap
Introduction
Zend_Loader
Loading Files and Classes Dynamically
Loading Plugins
Zend_Locale
Introduction
Using Zend_Locale
Normalization and Localization
Working with Dates and Times
Supported Languages for Locales
Supported Regions for Locales
Zend_Log
Overview
Writers
Formatters
Filters
Zend_Mail
Introduction
Sending via SMTP
Sending Multiple Mails per SMTP Connection
Using Different Transports
HTML E-Mail
Attachments
Adding Recipients
Controlling the MIME Boundary
Additional Headers
Character Sets
Encoding
SMTP Authentication
Securing SMTP Transport
Reading Mail Messages
Zend_Measure
Introduction
Creation of Measurements
Outputting measurements
Manipulating Measurements
Types of measurements
Zend_Memory
Overview
Memory Manager
Memory Objects
Zend_Mime
Zend_Mime
Zend_Mime_Message
Zend_Mime_Part
Zend_OpenId
Introduction
Zend_OpenId_Consumer Basics
Zend_OpenId_Provider
Zend_Paginator
Introduction
Usage
Configuration
Advanced usage
Zend_Pdf
Introduction.
Creating and loading PDF documents.
Save changes to the PDF document.
Document pages.
Drawing.
Document Info and Metadata.
Zend_Pdf module usage example.
Zend_Registry
Using the Registry
Zend_Rest
Introduction
Zend_Rest_Client
Zend_Rest_Server
Zend_Search_Lucene
Overview
Building Indexes
Searching an Index
Query Language
Query Construction API
Character Set
Extensibility
Interoperating with Java Lucene
Advanced
Best Practices
Zend_Server
Introduction
Zend_Server_Reflection
Zend_Service
Introduction
Zend_Service_Akismet
Zend_Service_Amazon
Zend_Service_Audioscrobbler
Zend_Service_Delicious
Zend_Service_Flickr
Zend_Service_Nirvanix
Zend_Service_ReCaptcha
Zend_Service_Simpy
Introduction
Zend_Service_StrikeIron
Zend_Service_StrikeIron: Bundled Services
Zend_Service_StrikeIron: Advanced Uses
Zend_Service_Technorati
Zend_Service_Yahoo
Zend_Session
Introduction
Basic Usage
Advanced Usage
Global Session Management
Zend_Session_SaveHandler_DbTable
Zend_Soap
Zend_Soap_Server
Zend_Soap_Client
WSDL Accessor
AutoDiscovery. Introduction
Class autodiscovering.
Functions autodiscovering.
Autodiscovering. Datatypes.
Zend_Test
Introduction
Zend_Test_PHPUnit
Zend_Text
Zend_Text_Figlet
Zend_TimeSync
Introduction
Working with Zend_TimeSync
Zend_Translate
Introduction
Adapters for Zend_Translate
Using Translation Adapters
Zend_Uri
Zend_Uri
Zend_Validate
Introduction
Standard Validation Classes
Validator Chains
Writing Validators
Zend_Version
Reading the Zend Framework Version
Zend_View
Introduction
Controller Scripts
View Scripts
View Helpers
Zend_View_Abstract
Zend_Wildfire
Zend_Wildfire
Zend_XmlRpc
Introduction
Zend_XmlRpc_Client
Zend_XmlRpc_Server
Zend Framework Requirements
PHP Version
PHP Extensions
Zend Framework Components
Zend Framework Dependencies
Zend Framework Coding Standard for PHP
Overview
PHP File Formatting
Naming Conventions
Coding Style
Copyright Information