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Create a Model and Database Table

Before we get started, let's consider something: where will these classes live, and how will we find them? The default project we created instantiates an autoloader. We can attach other autoloaders to it so that it knows where to find different classes. Typically, we want our various MVC classes grouped under the same tree -- in this case, application/ -- and most often using a common prefix.

Zend_Controller_Front has a notion of "modules", which are individual mini-applications. Modules mimic the directory structure that the zf tool sets up under application/, and all classes inside them are assumed to begin with a common prefix, the module name. application/ is itself a module -- the "default" or "application" module. As such, we'll want to setup autoloading for resources within this directory.

Zend_Application_Module_Autoloader provides the functionality needed to map the various resources under a module to the appropriate directories, and provides a standard naming mechanism as well. An instance of the class is created by default during initialization of the bootstrap object; your application bootstrap will be default use the module prefix "Application". As such, our models, forms, and table classes will all begin with the class prefix "Application_".

Now, let's consider what makes up a guestbook. Typically, they are simply a list of entries with a comment, timestamp, and, often, email address. Assuming we store them in a database, we may also want a unique identifier for each entry. We'll likely want to be able to save an entry, fetch individual entries, and retrieve all entries. As such, a simple guestbook model API might look something like this:

// application/models/Guestbook.php

class Application_Model_Guestbook
{
    protected $_comment;
    protected $_created;
    protected $_email;
    protected $_id;

    public function __set($name, $value);
    public function __get($name);

    public function setComment($text);
    public function getComment();

    public function setEmail($email);
    public function getEmail();

    public function setCreated($ts);
    public function getCreated();

    public function setId($id);
    public function getId();
}

class Application_Model_GuestbookMapper
{
    public function save(Application_Model_Guestbook $guestbook);
    public function find($id);
    public function fetchAll();
}

__get() and __set() will provide a convenience mechanism for us to access the individual entry properties, and proxy to the other getters and setters. They also will help ensure that only properties we whitelist will be available in the object.

find() and fetchAll() provide the ability to fetch a single entry or all entries, while save() takes care of saving an entry to the data store.

Now from here, we can start thinking about setting up our database.

First we need to initialize our Db resource. As with the Layout and View resource, we can provide configuration for the Db resource. We can do this with the zf configure db-adapter command:

% zf configure db-adapter \
> 'adapter=PDO_SQLITE&dbname=APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook.db"' \
> production
A db configuration for the production has been written to the application config file.

% zf configure db-adapter \
> 'adapter=PDO_SQLITE&dbname=APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook-testing.db"' \
> testing
A db configuration for the production has been written to the application config file.

% zf configure db-adapter \
> 'adapter=PDO_SQLITE&dbname=APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook-dev.db"' \
> development
A db configuration for the production has been written to the application config file.

Now edit your application/configs/application.ini file, where you'll see the following lines were added in the appropriate sections.

; application/configs/application.ini

[production]
; ...
resources.db.adapter = "PDO_SQLITE"
resources.db.params.dbname = APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook.db"

[testing : production]
; ...
resources.db.adapter = "PDO_SQLITE"
resources.db.params.dbname = APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook-testing.db"

[development : production]
; ...
resources.db.adapter = "PDO_SQLITE"
resources.db.params.dbname = APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook-dev.db"

Your final configuration file should look like the following:

; application/configs/application.ini

[production]
phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 0
phpSettings.display_errors = 0
bootstrap.path = APPLICATION_PATH "/Bootstrap.php"
bootstrap.class = "Bootstrap"
appnamespace = "Application"
resources.frontController.controllerDirectory = APPLICATION_PATH "/controllers"
resources.frontController.params.displayExceptions = 0
resources.layout.layoutPath = APPLICATION_PATH "/layouts/scripts"
resources.view[] =
resources.db.adapter = "PDO_SQLITE"
resources.db.params.dbname = APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook.db"

[staging : production]

[testing : production]
phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 1
phpSettings.display_errors = 1
resources.db.adapter = "PDO_SQLITE"
resources.db.params.dbname = APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook-testing.db"

[development : production]
phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 1
phpSettings.display_errors = 1
resources.db.adapter = "PDO_SQLITE"
resources.db.params.dbname = APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook-dev.db"

Note that the database(s) will be stored in data/db/. Create those directories, and make them world-writeable. On unix-like systems, you can do that as follows:

% mkdir -p data/db; chmod -R a+rwX data

On Windows, you will need to create the directories in Explorer and set the permissions to allow anyone to write to the directory.

At this point we have a connection to a database; in our case, its a connection to a Sqlite database located inside our application/data/ directory. So, let's design a simple table that will hold our guestbook entries.

-- scripts/schema.sqlite.sql
--
-- You will need load your database schema with this SQL.

CREATE TABLE guestbook (
    id INTEGER NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT,
    email VARCHAR(32) NOT NULL DEFAULT 'noemail@test.com',
    comment TEXT NULL,
    created DATETIME NOT NULL
);

CREATE INDEX "id" ON "guestbook" ("id");

And, so that we can have some working data out of the box, lets create a few rows of information to make our application interesting.

-- scripts/data.sqlite.sql
--
-- You can begin populating the database with the following SQL statements.

INSERT INTO guestbook (email, comment, created) VALUES
    ('ralph.schindler@zend.com',
    'Hello! Hope you enjoy this sample zf application!',
    DATETIME('NOW'));
INSERT INTO guestbook (email, comment, created) VALUES
    ('foo@bar.com',
    'Baz baz baz, baz baz Baz baz baz - baz baz baz.',
    DATETIME('NOW'));

Now that we have both the schema and some data defined. Lets get a script together that we can now execute to build this database. Naturally, this is not needed in production, but this script will help developers build out the database requirements locally so they can have the fully working application. Create the script as scripts/load.sqlite.php with the following contents:

// scripts/load.sqlite.php

/**
 * Script for creating and loading database
 */

// Initialize the application path and autoloading
defined('APPLICATION_PATH')
    || define('APPLICATION_PATH', realpath(dirname(__FILE__) . '/../application'));
set_include_path(implode(PATH_SEPARATOR, array(
    APPLICATION_PATH . '/../library',
    get_include_path(),
)));
require_once 'Zend/Loader/Autoloader.php';
Zend_Loader_Autoloader::getInstance();

// Define some CLI options
$getopt = new Zend_Console_Getopt(array(
    'withdata|w' => 'Load database with sample data',
    'env|e-s'    => 'Application environment for which to create database (defaults to development)',
    'help|h'     => 'Help -- usage message',
));
try {
    $getopt->parse();
} catch (Zend_Console_Getopt_Exception $e) {
    // Bad options passed: report usage
    echo $e->getUsageMessage();
    return false;
}

// If help requested, report usage message
if ($getopt->getOption('h')) {
    echo $getopt->getUsageMessage();
    return true;
}

// Initialize values based on presence or absence of CLI options
$withData = $getopt->getOption('w');
$env      = $getopt->getOption('e');
defined('APPLICATION_ENV')
    || define('APPLICATION_ENV', (null === $env) ? 'development' : $env);

// Initialize Zend_Application
$application = new Zend_Application(
    APPLICATION_ENV,
    APPLICATION_PATH . '/configs/application.ini'
);

// Initialize and retrieve DB resource
$bootstrap = $application->getBootstrap();
$bootstrap->bootstrap('db');
$dbAdapter = $bootstrap->getResource('db');

// let the user know whats going on (we are actually creating a
// database here)
if ('testing' != APPLICATION_ENV) {
    echo 'Writing Database Guestbook in (control-c to cancel): ' . PHP_EOL;
    for ($x = 5; $x > 0; $x--) {
        echo $x . "\r"; sleep(1);
    }
}

// Check to see if we have a database file already
$options = $bootstrap->getOption('resources');
$dbFile  = $options['db']['params']['dbname'];
if (file_exists($dbFile)) {
    unlink($dbFile);
}

// this block executes the actual statements that were loaded from
// the schema file.
try {
    $schemaSql = file_get_contents(dirname(__FILE__) . '/schema.sqlite.sql');
    // use the connection directly to load sql in batches
    $dbAdapter->getConnection()->exec($schemaSql);
    chmod($dbFile, 0666);

    if ('testing' != APPLICATION_ENV) {
        echo PHP_EOL;
        echo 'Database Created';
        echo PHP_EOL;
    }

    if ($withData) {
        $dataSql = file_get_contents(dirname(__FILE__) . '/data.sqlite.sql');
        // use the connection directly to load sql in batches
        $dbAdapter->getConnection()->exec($dataSql);
        if ('testing' != APPLICATION_ENV) {
            echo 'Data Loaded.';
            echo PHP_EOL;
        }
    }

} catch (Exception $e) {
    echo 'AN ERROR HAS OCCURED:' . PHP_EOL;
    echo $e->getMessage() . PHP_EOL;
    return false;
}

// generally speaking, this script will be run from the command line
return true;

Now, let's execute this script. From a terminal or the DOS command line, do the following:

% php scripts/load.sqlite.php --withdata

You should see output like the following:

path/to/ZendFrameworkQuickstart/scripts$ php load.sqlite.php --withdata
Writing Database Guestbook in (control-c to cancel):
1
Database Created
Data Loaded.

Now we have a fully working database and table for our guestbook application. Our next few steps are to build out our application code. This includes building a data source (in our case, we will use Zend_Db_Table), and a data mapper to connect that data source to our domain model. Finally we'll also create the controller that will interact with this model to both display existing entries and process new entries.

We'll use a » Table Data Gateway to connect to our data source; Zend_Db_Table provides this functionality. To get started, lets create a Zend_Db_Table-based table class. Just as we've done for layouts and the database adapter, we can use the zf tool to assist, using the command create db-table. This takes minimally two arguments, the name by which you want to refer to the class, and the database table it maps to.

% zf create db-table Guestbook guestbook
Creating a DbTable at application/models/DbTable/Guestbook.php
Updating project profile 'zfproject.xml'

Looking at your directory tree, you'll now see that a new directory, application/models/DbTable/, was created, with the file Guestbook.php. If you open that file, you'll see the following contents:

// application/models/DbTable/Guestbook.php

/**
 * This is the DbTable class for the guestbook table.
 */
class Application_Model_DbTable_Guestbook extends Zend_Db_Table_Abstract
{
    /** Table name */
    protected $_name    = 'guestbook';
}

Note the class prefix: Application_Model_DbTable. The class prefix for our module, "Application", is the first segment, and then we have the component, "Model_DbTable"; the latter is mapped to the models/DbTable/ directory of the module.

All that is truly necessary when extending Zend_Db_Table is to provide a table name and optionally the primary key (if it is not "id").

Now let's create a » Data Mapper. A Data Mapper maps a domain object to the database. In our case, it will map our model, Application_Model_Guestbook, to our data source, Application_Model_DbTable_Guestbook. A typical API for a data mapper is as follows:

// application/models/GuestbookMapper.php

class Application_Model_GuestbookMapper
{
    public function save($model);
    public function find($id, $model);
    public function fetchAll();
}

In addition to these methods, we'll add methods for setting and retrieving the Table Data Gateway. To create the initial class, use the zf CLI tool:

% zf create model GuestbookMapper
Creating a model at application/models/GuestbookMapper.php
Updating project profile '.zfproject.xml'

Now, edit the class Application_Model_GuestbookMapper found in application/models/GuestbookMapper.php to read as follows:

// application/models/GuestbookMapper.php

class Application_Model_GuestbookMapper
{
    protected $_dbTable;

    public function setDbTable($dbTable)
    {
        if (is_string($dbTable)) {
            $dbTable = new $dbTable();
        }
        if (!$dbTable instanceof Zend_Db_Table_Abstract) {
            throw new Exception('Invalid table data gateway provided');
        }
        $this->_dbTable = $dbTable;
        return $this;
    }

    public function getDbTable()
    {
        if (null === $this->_dbTable) {
            $this->setDbTable('Application_Model_DbTable_Guestbook');
        }
        return $this->_dbTable;
    }

    public function save(Application_Model_Guestbook $guestbook)
    {
        $data = array(
            'email'   => $guestbook->getEmail(),
            'comment' => $guestbook->getComment(),
            'created' => date('Y-m-d H:i:s'),
        );

        if (null === ($id = $guestbook->getId())) {
            unset($data['id']);
            $this->getDbTable()->insert($data);
        } else {
            $this->getDbTable()->update($data, array('id = ?' => $id));
        }
    }

    public function find($id, Application_Model_Guestbook $guestbook)
    {
        $result = $this->getDbTable()->find($id);
        if (0 == count($result)) {
            return;
        }
        $row = $result->current();
        $guestbook->setId($row->id)
                  ->setEmail($row->email)
                  ->setComment($row->comment)
                  ->setCreated($row->created);
    }

    public function fetchAll()
    {
        $resultSet = $this->getDbTable()->fetchAll();
        $entries   = array();
        foreach ($resultSet as $row) {
            $entry = new Application_Model_Guestbook();
            $entry->setId($row->id)
                  ->setEmail($row->email)
                  ->setComment($row->comment)
                  ->setCreated($row->created);
            $entries[] = $entry;
        }
        return $entries;
    }
}

Now it's time to create our model class. We'll do so, once again, using the zf create model command:

% zf create model Guestbook
Creating a model at application/models/Guestbook.php
Updating project profile '.zfproject.xml'

We'll modify this empty PHP class to make it easy to populate the model by passing an array of data either to the constructor or a setOptions() method. The final model class, located in application/models/Guestbook.php, should look like this:

// application/models/Guestbook.php

class Application_Model_Guestbook
{
    protected $_comment;
    protected $_created;
    protected $_email;
    protected $_id;

    public function __construct(array $options = null)
    {
        if (is_array($options)) {
            $this->setOptions($options);
        }
    }

    public function __set($name, $value)
    {
        $method = 'set' . $name;
        if (('mapper' == $name) || !method_exists($this, $method)) {
            throw new Exception('Invalid guestbook property');
        }
        $this->$method($value);
    }

    public function __get($name)
    {
        $method = 'get' . $name;
        if (('mapper' == $name) || !method_exists($this, $method)) {
            throw new Exception('Invalid guestbook property');
        }
        return $this->$method();
    }

    public function setOptions(array $options)
    {
        $methods = get_class_methods($this);
        foreach ($options as $key => $value) {
            $method = 'set' . ucfirst($key);
            if (in_array($method, $methods)) {
                $this->$method($value);
            }
        }
        return $this;
    }

    public function setComment($text)
    {
        $this->_comment = (string) $text;
        return $this;
    }

    public function getComment()
    {
        return $this->_comment;
    }

    public function setEmail($email)
    {
        $this->_email = (string) $email;
        return $this;
    }

    public function getEmail()
    {
        return $this->_email;
    }

    public function setCreated($ts)
    {
        $this->_created = $ts;
        return $this;
    }

    public function getCreated()
    {
        return $this->_created;
    }

    public function setId($id)
    {
        $this->_id = (int) $id;
        return $this;
    }

    public function getId()
    {
        return $this->_id;
    }
}

Lastly, to connect these elements all together, lets create a guestbook controller that will both list the entries that are currently inside the database.

To create a new controller, use the zf create controller command:

% zf create controller Guestbook
Creating a controller at
    application/controllers/GuestbookController.php
Creating an index action method in controller Guestbook
Creating a view script for the index action method at
    application/views/scripts/guestbook/index.phtml
Creating a controller test file at
    tests/application/controllers/GuestbookControllerTest.php
Updating project profile '.zfproject.xml'

This will create a new controller, GuestbookController, in application/controllers/GuestbookController.php, with a single action method, indexAction(). It will also create a view script directory for the controller, application/views/scripts/guestbook/, with a view script for the index action.

We'll use the "index" action as a landing page to view all guestbook entries.

Now, let's flesh out the basic application logic. On a hit to indexAction(), we'll display all guestbook entries. This would look like the following:

// application/controllers/GuestbookController.php

class GuestbookController extends Zend_Controller_Action
{
    public function indexAction()
    {
        $guestbook = new Application_Model_GuestbookMapper();
        $this->view->entries = $guestbook->fetchAll();
    }
}

And, of course, we need a view script to go along with that. Edit application/views/scripts/guestbook/index.phtml to read as follows:



Sign Our Guestbook

Guestbook Entries:
entries as $entry): ?>
escape($entry->email) ?>
escape($entry->comment) ?>

Note: Checkpoint

Now browse to "http://localhost/guestbook". You should see the following in your browser:

learning.quickstart.create-model.png

Note: Using the data loader script

The data loader script introduced in this section (scripts/load.sqlite.php) can be used to create the database for each environment you have defined, as well as to load it with sample data. Internally, it utilizes Zend_Console_Getopt, which allows it to provide a number of command line switches. If you pass the "-h" or "--help" switch, it will give you the available options:

Usage: load.sqlite.php [ options ]
--withdata|-w         Load database with sample data
--env|-e [  ]         Application environment for which to create database
                      (defaults to development)
--help|-h             Help -- usage message)]]

The "-e" switch allows you to specify the value to use for the constant APPLICATION_ENV -- which in turn allows you to create a SQLite database for each environment you define. Be sure to run the script for the environment you choose for your application when deploying.

Previous Next
Introduction au Zend Framework
Présentation
Installation
Apprendre Zend Framework
Démarrez rapidement avec Zend Framework
Zend Framework & MVC Introduction
Create Your Project
Create A Layout
Create a Model and Database Table
Create A Form
Congratulations!
Chargement automatique avec Zend Framework
Introduction
Architecture et buts
Utilisation de base de l'autoloader
Auto-chargement de resources
Conclusion
Les plugins dans Zend Framework
Introduction
Utiliser des Plugins
Conclusion
Bien démarrer avec Zend_Layout
Introduction
Utiliser Zend_Layout
Zend_Layout: Conclusions
Bien démarrer avec Zend_View
Introduction
Basic Placeholder Usage
Standard Placeholders
View Placeholders: Conclusion
Bien comprendre et utiliser les décorateurs Zend Form
Introduction
Les bases des décorateurs
Chainer les décorateurs
Rendu individuel des décorateurs
Créer et rendre des éléments composites
Conclusion
Bien démarrer avec Zend_Session, Zend_Auth, et Zend_Acl
Fabrique une application Multi-Utilisateurs avec Zend Framework
Gérer les sessions dans ZF
Authentification d'utilisateurs dans Zend Framework
Fabriquer un système de gestion d'autorisations avec Zend Framework
Bien démarrer avec Zend_Search_Lucene
Introduction à Zend_Search_Lucene
Structure d'index Lucene
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Assembler le tout
Guide de référence Zend Framework
Zend_Acl
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Affiner les Contrôles d'Accès
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Zend_Amf
Introduction
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L'objet Requête
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Zend_Date API Overview
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Zend_Db
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Afficher des informations
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Zend_Feed_Reader
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Introduction
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Utilisation des albums Web Picasa
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Introduction
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Zend_Navigation
Introduction
Pages
Containers
Zend_Oauth
Introduction to OAuth
Zend_OpenId
Introduction
Zend_OpenId_Consumer Basics
Zend_OpenId_Provider
Zend_Paginator
Introduction
Utilisation
Configuration
Utilisation avancée
Zend_Pdf
Introduction
Créer et charger des documents PDF
Sauvegarder les changement dans un document PDF
Les pages d'un document
Dessiner
Interactive Features
Informations du document et métadonnées
Exemple d'utilisation du module Zend_Pdf
Zend_ProgressBar
Zend_ProgressBar
Zend_Queue
Introduction
Example usage
Framework
Adapters
Customizing Zend_Queue
Stomp
Zend_Reflection
Introduction
Zend_Reflection Exemples
Réference de Zend_Reflection
Zend_Registry
Utiliser le registre
Zend_Rest
Introduction
Zend_Rest_Client
Zend_Rest_Server
Zend_Search_Lucene
Vue d'ensemble
Créer des index
Chercher dans un index
Langage de requêtes
API de construction de requêtes
Jeu de caractères
Extensibilité
Agir avec Lucene Java
Avancé
Bonnes pratiques
Zend_Serializer
Introduction
Zend_Serializer_Adapter
Zend_Server
Introduction
Zend_Server_Reflection
Zend_Service
Introduction
Zend_Service_Akismet
Zend_Service_Amazon
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Instances
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Windows Instances
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Reserved Instances
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: CloudWatch Monitoring
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Amazon Machine Images (AMI)
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Elastic Block Storage (EBS)
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Elastic IP Addresses
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Keypairs
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Regions and Availability Zones
Zend_Service_Amazon_Ec2: Security Groups
Zend_Service_Amazon_S3
Zend_Service_Amazon_Sqs
Zend_Service_Audioscrobbler
Zend_Service_Delicious
Zend_Service_DeveloperGarden
Zend_Service_Flickr
Zend_Service_LiveDocx
Zend_Service_Nirvanix
Zend_Service_ReCaptcha
Zend_Service_Simpy
Zend_Service_SlideShare
Zend_Service_StrikeIron
Zend_Service_StrikeIron: Bundled Services
Zend_Service_StrikeIron: Advanced Uses
Zend_Service_Technorati
Zend_Service_Twitter
Zend_Service_WindowsAzure
Zend_Service_Yahoo
Zend_Session
Introduction
Usage basique
Utilisation avancée
Gestion générale de la session
Zend_Session_SaveHandler_DbTable
Zend_Soap
Zend_Soap_Server
Zend_Soap_Client
WSDL
Auto découverte
Zend_Tag
Introduction
Zend_Tag_Cloud
Zend_Test
Introduction
Zend_Test_PHPUnit
Zend_Test_PHPUnit_Db
Zend_Text
Zend_Text_Figlet
Zend_Text_Table
Zend_TimeSync
Introduction
Utiliser Zend_TimeSync
Zend_Tool
Using Zend_Tool On The Command Line
Extending Zend_Tool
Zend_Tool_Framework
Introduction
Using the CLI Tool
Architecture
Creating Providers to use with Zend_Tool_Framework
Shipped System Providers
Extending and Configuring Zend_Tool_Framework
Zend_Tool_Project
Introduction
Créer un projet
Fournisseurs de Zend_Tool_Project
Rouages internes de Zend_Tool_Project
Zend_Translate
Introduction
Adaptateurs pour Zend_Translate
Utiliser les adaptateurs de traduction
Creating source files
Additional features for translation
Notation des pluriels pour Translation
Zend_Uri
Zend_Uri
Zend_Validate
Introduction
Classes de validation standard
Chaînes de validation
Écrire des validateurs
Messages de validation
Zend_Version
Lire la version de Zend Framework
Zend_View
Introduction
Scripts de contrôleur
Scripts de vue
Aides de vue
Zend_View_Abstract
Zend_Wildfire
Zend_Wildfire
Zend_XmlRpc
Introduction
Zend_XmlRpc_Client
Zend_XmlRpc_Server
ZendX_Console_Process_Unix
ZendX_Console_Process_Unix
ZendX_JQuery
Introduction
ZendX_JQuery View Helpers
ZendX_JQuery Form Elements and Decorators
Configuration système requise par Zend Framework
Introduction
Notes de migration de Zend Framework
Zend Framework 1.10
Zend Framework 1.9
Zend Framework 1.8
Zend Framework 1.7
Zend Framework 1.6
Zend Framework 1.5
Zend Framework 1.0
Zend Framework 0.9
Zend Framework 0.8
Zend Framework 0.6
Convention de codage PHP de Zend Framework
Vue d'ensemble
Formatage des fichiers PHP
Conventions de nommage
Style de codage
Zend Framework Documentation Standard
Overview
Documentation File Formatting
Recommendations
Recommended Project Structure for Zend Framework MVC Applications
Overview
Recommended Project Directory Structure
Module Structure
Rewrite Configuration Guide
Guide de performance Zend Framework
Introduction
Chargement des classes
Performance de Zend_Db
Internationalisation (i18n) and Localisation (l10n)
View Rendering
Informations de copyright